Keynote Lecture

Day 2

Sunday, 8th October2017

“Temporomandibular Disorders: Why They Matter”

“Understanding and Managing the Anxious Dental Patient”


          A/Prof. Dr. Adrian Yap

PhD, MSc, BDS, Grad Dip Psychotherapy, FAMS

A/Prof. Adrian Yap is a Senior Consultant / Prosthodontist at Ng Teng Fong General Hospital and Jurong Medical Centre. He is Head, Department of Dentistry of Jurong Health, Singapore’s western public healthcare cluster. In addition, Dr. Yap is an Adjunct Professor at the School of Science and Technology, SIM University (UniSIM), Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia (UI) and University of Malayaas well as Clinical Associate Professor at the Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore (NUS). Dr. Yap is also an Honorary Professor of Hong Kong University, one of the top Dental Schools in the world. Dr. Yap obtained his BDS degree from NUS in 1991 where he received several awards including the FAC Ohlers Gold Medal for best clinical student and Terrell Silver Medal for distinction in Prosthodontics. He went on to pursue his post-graduate training and graduated from the Institute of Dental Surgery (University of London), where he was conferred the prestigious 3M Dental Postgraduate Prize, with a Masters in Conservative Dentistry in 1993. Dr. Yap obtained his Doctor of Philosophy degree from NUS in 2001 and his Graduate Diploma in Psychotherapy from the Faculty of Medicine, NUS in 2004. On top of his academic accolades, he has also received many teaching, service excellence and research awards in the areas of Dental Materials and Craniofacial Biology. Dr. Yap is known for his expertise in Temporomandibular Disorders, Dental Sleep Medicine and Restorative Dentistry. He lectures world-wide and has authored more than 185 refereed journal articles (H-index of 35), 590 conference / seminar papers, several book chapters and patents in these areas. Dr. Yap is a reviewer for numerous international journals and serves in the editorial boards of several including Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Craniomandibular and Sleep Practice (CRANIO), Operative Dentistry as well as Current Nanoscience.


Temporomandibular Disorders: Why They Matter?

Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) refer to a collection of dental and medical conditions affecting the temporomandibular joints (TMJ), masticatory muscles and / or associated structures. They are the most common cause of non-dental orofacial pain and are the second most widespread musculoskeletal pain after chronic lower back pain. In addition to pain in head, face and jaws, other TMD signs and symptoms include otic complaints, jaw joint sounds, jaw function difficulties, limited or abnormal jaw movements as well as catching/locking of the jaws. Population studies show that approximately 75% of people have signs while 33% have symptoms of TMD.

The biopsychosocial paradigm views a combination of biologic, psychological and social / cultural factors as essential in causing, maintaining and exacerbating TMD. Among the various factors, micro-trauma from sustained and repetitive adverse loading of the TMJ and masticatory muscles during Sleep Bruxism (SB) was reported to cause TMD. As SB has been related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), it was proposed that the treatment of OSA and hence SB may alleviate TMD signs and symptoms. This two-part lecture aims to help participants know the current concepts of TMD, their classification, signs and symptoms and etiology. It also serves to introduce SB and OSA, and deliberates the potential connections between the three entities. Participants will learn how to screen for TMD, SB and OSA clinically. An overview of TMD management will also be presented. TMD patients should be referred for formal sleep tests if TMD signs and symptoms are associated with poor quality sleep, snoring, nocturnal choking and / or excessive daytime sleepiness.

Understanding and Managing the Anxious Dental Patient

Fear is an innate emotional response to threats, danger or pain while anxiety is the distress or uneasiness of mind caused by fear. Almost everyone experiences anxiety at some time or another. Most people have specific fears that can trigger panicked emotions. Dental anxiety has been ranked the fifth most commonly feared situation and is one of the primary reasons why people avoid visiting their dentists and oral health therapist. Dental anxiety may be related to the dental environment, specific dental procedures / pain and has been associated with poor oral health status, appointment failures, longer treatment time as well as reduced treatment satisfaction. This two-part lecture aims to help participants understand the psychology of anxiety and the behavioral, psychological and pharmacological techniques for helping anxious dental patients.